[{TableOfContents}] !!! Overview The main purpose of deparallelization is to remove pruning and parallel combinators to produce an expression which uses only sequencing and "otherwise" (which can be interpreted efficiently or compiled into bytecode). The goal is to deparallelize first-order expressions written in Cor + | + >>. !!! Theory An expression is __contained__ if it calls only contained sites. A contained site is any site whose observed behavior is not affected by, and cannot affect, other site calls. Some examples of contained sites: * {{+}} is contained: obviously * {{if}} is contained: contained sites are allowed to halt * {{/}} is contained: contained sites may trigger an error * {{println}} is contained: although it prints to stdout, this side-effect cannot affect the behavior of the program * {{random}} is contained: although it is non-functional, any relationship to concurrent calls cannot be observed * {{x := 3}} is not contained: the side-effect of updating x may be observed * {{x?}} is not contained: the behavior depends on writes to x * {{Rtimer}} is not contained: the behavior depends on a shared clock (this case shows the definition of containment needs clarification) The predicate contained~[] is defined by: {{{ contained[M(x)] = M is contained contained[f <x< g] = contained[f] and contained[g] contained[f >x> g] = contained[f] and contained[g] contained[f ; g] = contained[f] and contained[g] contained[f | g] = contained[f] and contained[g] }}} An expression is __pure__ if it calls only pure sites. A pure site is any site whose publication is determined only by the values of its arguments, and has no observable behavior aside from publication (or lack thereof). This corresponds to the mathematical notion of a function. All pure expressions are contained, but not all contained expressions are pure: * {{/}} is not pure because it may print an error message * {{println}} is not pure because it prints to stdout * {{random}} is not pure because its publications vary even with the same arguments * {{if}} is pure: pure sites are allowed to halt (without error) The predicate pure~[] is defined by: {{{ pure[M(x)] = M is pure pure[f <x< g] = pure[f] and pure[g] pure[f >x> g] = pure[f] and pure[g] pure[f ; g] = pure[f] and pure[g] pure[f | g] = pure[f] and pure[g] }}} An expression is __sequential__ (maybe "deterministic" is a better term?) if it does not use the parallel combinator. The predicate seq~[] is defined by: {{{ seq[M(x)] = true seq[f <x< g] = seq[f] seq[f >x> g] = seq[f] and seq[g] seq[f ; g] = seq[f] and seq[g] seq[f | g] = false }}} An expression is __safe__ if it publishes at least one value. The predicate safe~[] is defined by: {{{ safe[M(x), E] = E[x] and M is a safe site safe[f <x< g, E] = safe[f, E+x:safe[g, E]] safe[f >x> g, E] = safe[f] and safe[g, E+x:true] safe[f ; g, E] = safe[f, E] or safe[g, E] safe[f | g, E] = safe[f, E] or safe[g, E] }}} Here's a more refined definition of safe~[] which evaluates to a statement of predicate logic; if the statement is a theorem (= true) then the expression is safe. This definition is necessary, for example, to recognize that "if then else" will always execute either the then branch or the else branch. {{{ value[M(x), V] = fresh symbol value[~a, V] = not V[a] value[a && b, V] = V[a] and V[b] value[a || b, V] = V[a] or V[b] value[f >x> g, V] = value[g, V+x:value[f, V]] value[f <x< g, V] = value[f, V+x:value[g, V]] value[f | g, V] = value[f, V] or value[g, V] value[f ; g, V] = value[f, V] or value[g, V] safe[if(x), P, V] = P[x] and V[x] safe[M(x), P, V] = P[x] and (M is a safe site) safe[f <x< g, P, V] = safe[f, P+x:safe[g, P], V+x:value[g, V]] safe[f >x> g, P, V] = safe[f, P, V] and safe[g, P+x:true, V+x:value[f, V]] safe[f ; g, P, V] = safe[f, P, V] or safe[g, P, V] safe[f | g, P, V] = safe[f, P, V] or safe[g, P, V] }}} (When evaluating | and ;, should we take advantage of safety to prove that one branch can never publish?) Now we will enumerate the identities which we will use to deparallelize expressions. First, some standard identities: {{{ (f | g) >> h <=> f >> h | g >> h (f >> g) <x< h <=> (f <x< h) >> g if g does not refer to x <=> (f | g) <x< h (f <x< h) | g if g does not refer to x <=> (f | g) <x< h f | (g <x< h) if f does not refer to x <=> (f ; g) <x< h (f <x< h) ; g if g does not refer to x }}} Define a transformation O~[] on contained expressions: {{{ O[M(...)] = M(...) O[f | g] = O[f] ; O[g] O[f ; g] = O[f] ; O[g] O[f >> g] = f >> O[g] O[f << g] = O[f] << g }}} This transformation obeys the identity: {{{ f << g <=> f << O[g] if g is contained }}} Some new identities: {{{ f <x< h <=> f if h is pure and f does not refer to x (f | g) <x< h <=> (f <x< h) | (g <x< h) if h is pure (is this necessary/desirable?) (f ; g) <x< h <=> (f <x< h) ; (g <x< h) if h is pure (is this necessary/desirable?) f <x< h <=> h >x> f if h is contained, safe and sequential f ; g <=> f if f is safe (f >> g) | h <=> f >> (g | h) if f is safe and sequential (f >> g) <x< h <=> f >> (g <x< h) if (h is pure or (f is safe and sequential)) and f does not refer to x (f_0 | f_1 | ... | f_n) <x< g <=> g >x> (f_0 | f_1 | ... | f_n) if g is sequential and every f_i has the form "M(x)" or "M(x) >> g" (can we generalize this better?) }}} We can apply these identities in a bottom-up fashion to: # pull parallel combinators up (until they can be removed by O~[]) # push pruning combinators down (to the point where the variable is used) # remove parallel combinators (to make expressions sequential) # remove pruning combinators (to deparallelize) !!! Limitations What are some interesting expressions we cannot deparallelize? !!! Nested | and ; {{{ x <x< ((f | g) ; h) >> j }}} If f succeeds and j fails, then we must still try g, but we must not try h; there is no way to express this without |, and therefore no way to remove the pruning combinator. Fortunately, Cor + | + >> expressions, lacking ";", cannot have this form[1]. ---- [#1] This assumes that {{if b then f else g}} is encoded as {{if(b) >> f | if(~b) >> g}} rather than {{if(b) >> f ; if(~b) >> g}}.